Development of Oxy-fuel combustion technology for CO2 capture and storage.
Currently in Phase 9, the program focuses on development and demonstration of advanced near-zero emission fossil fuel technologies with the goal to improve the overall economics and performance of these systems. CANMET is the primary performer of the work. The research program aims at gaining better understanding of combustion, heat transfer and pollution forming behavior in different oxy-fuel combustion modes, system integration and cycle development for O2/FGR, pure O2 combustion, and hydroxy-fuel combustion of fossil fuels. The program also includes the development of novel integrated multi-pollutant control strategies for NOx, SOx, Hg, and particulate with optimization, integration and low-grade heat recovery, advanced zero-emission gas turbine cycles and integration with fuel cells.
Ontario Power Generation
Government of Canada
Government of Alberta
Babcock and Wilcox
US Dept. of Energy
CCP2 [ a consortium of 8 major oil & gas companies, US DOE, European Commission, The Research Council of Norway]
Commenced: 1994 - on-going
Performance evaluation of various closed gas turbine and fuel cell based cycles utilizing oxy-fuel combustion to produce power and capture CO2. Work program includes simulation activities and primary research at two Canadian universities. The work at Carleton University on the Raven Zero-Emission Gas Turbine, is focused on the design and construction of a 70 KWe natural gas fired generator set using pure oxygen combustion with CO2 re-circulation. Design parameters and concepts learned from the pilot scale work will be used to model the operations of a 100 MWe industrial scale facility. Work is underway at the University of Waterloo to develop a simulation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which can be integrated with a gas turbine bottoming cycle.
Duration: 2002 - 2006
We will generate experimental data needed for designing larger direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC) by building a small experimental unit and testing the performance of direct carbon conversion in catalytically activated molten carbonate mixtures.
Recent R&D showed carbon could be electrochemically oxidized to CO2 using molten carbonate ions as the oxygen carrier. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon in carbonate salts does not consume the electrolyte (carbonate salts). Between mid- and late-1970's USDOE researched carbon/air fuel cells using molten carbonate electrolytes but like many other coal research, due to the abundant supply of cheap crude oil, this work was discontinued too. Only in recent years some American companies, DOE, and European research centres began to re-explore the technology.
The objectives of this project are to demonstrate CO2/O2 firing in a CFBC (circulating fluidized bed combustion) boiler using the 1MWt CETC pilot-scale CFBC boiler with a range of Canadian feedstocks. The program will allow the concept to be fully tested at a reasonable pilot scale level, verifying that low conventional emissions (NOx, SOx, CO, mercury and unburned hydrocarbons) can be achieved alongside the production of a near pure CO2 stream for sequestration.
This work will allow Canadian utilities to test Canadian fuels, and to verify that a CO2/O2 strategy can be applied to an advanced CFBC boiler. A commercial plant is anticipated by 2015.
Potential carbon dioxide reductions are on the order of 1.5e6 Mt/yr by 2015 and 8e6 Mt/yr by 2025.
More than 90% of the world's primary energy requirements are met by fossil fuels. Current fossil fuel combustion technologies emit large amounts of carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter which are detrimental to human health and pose a threat to the environment. The objective of this project "Integrated High-Efficiency Oxy-Fuel Combustion Process with CO2 Capture Comprising Gas cooled slagging combustor, Air Separation, and Gas Turbine Technologies" is to develop a new second generation oxy-fuel combustion process with near zero emissions and higher efficiency performance.
Carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere in the flue gas of power stations and industrial plants such as blast furnaces and cement kilns. The CO2 concentration in power station flue gas is about 4 percent (by volume) for natural gas-fired combined-cycle plants and about 14 percent (by volume) for pulverized coal-fired boilers. Flue gas could be compressed and stored underground, but the energy required for compression would be large given the amount of nitrogen in the flue gas stream. Additionally, the underground reservoirs would quickly become full. It is therefore necessary to separate CO2 from the flue gas before injecting the CO2 into the ground.
This project aims to design, build and test the world's first industrial scale gas fired oxy-fuel demonstration system for CO2 capture. CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa will be responsible for optimizing the overall process and scaling up a proprietary oxy-fuel burner concept. The system will incorporate a steam generator and power generation unit.The unit will aim to produce a high CO2 purity product stream which is suitable for compression and injection into a variety of geological storage media.
Duration: 2001 - 2006